The Crusades

by Abigail Archer

rating: 3.8 (87 reviews)

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Looking into the past, the Crusades seem incomprehensible. What combination of religious fervor, hatred of people of different faiths, and gall led Europeans of AD 1100 to make their way thousands of miles to conquer the Holy Land? Why did they continue for 200 years? How did the Crusades change the world?

The intriguing story is peppered with colorful characters. Over the centuries, this well-researched and written book argues, crusaders saw - and participated in - the evolution of warfare and the transformation of society from feudal fiefdoms to nations and empires. The story of the Crusades is a reminder, too, of the horrors wrought in the name of religion. The Crusades are seen by many Christians today as an exercise in fanaticism, an episode in which the teachings of Christ were used to justify the horrors perpetrated on innocents. That judgment is accurate, but not the whole story.

rank: #417
price: $2.35
bound: 3 hours and 2 minutes
publisher: Blackstone Audio, Inc.
lang: English
asin: B06XPJFM7B

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Of course it is possible that in order to swell his forces, Alexius Comnenus solicited assistance in the West; however, it was not he but the pope who agitated the great movement which filled the Greeks with anxiety and terrorRiley-Smith, The Crusades, Yale University, 1987.) The doctrine of holy war/crusade added two further assumptions: 1) Violence and its consequencesdeath and injuryare morally neutral rather than intrinsically evil, and whether violence is good or bad is a matter of intentionThomas FThus the Third Crusade failed in its ultimate objective, although it did at least allow the Franks to recover a strip of lands along the coast to provide a springboard for future expeditionsThis was meant to encourage participation, and many did indeed join in order to avoid the tallageIf you do not receive this email, please contact second force was organized by Bohemond, a Norman from southern ItalyThe editor of New Advent is Kevin KnightBut the winters were disastrous to the crusaders, whose ranks were decimated by disease brought on by the inclemency of the rainy season and lack of foodCrusades

The behaviour of the Crusaders appalled the Greeks and Muslims, creating a lasting barrier between the Latin world and both the Islamic and Orthodox religionsWhen Bohemond was captured by the Muslims in 1100, his nephew Tancred became regent and expanded the frontiers of the principality to include the important port of Latakia, taken from the Byzantines in 1103No longer had they to look back to the heroes of antiquity, because their own generation had provided men of comparable renownA.D1130s-1170s Fairs of Champagne become meeting place of merchants from Italy with those of Flanders (wholesale trade: Italian cloth, swords, warhorses; silks, sugar, spices from east/Flemish cloth and English tin); cycle of 6 trade fairs in four citiescJust as the crusaders started on their march, King Roger of Sicily attacked the Byzantine Empire, but his expedition merely checked the progress of Nour-ed-Din's invasion

This huge city had been a Roman settlement; to Christians it was significant as the place where saints Peter and Paul had lived and it was one of the five patriarchal seats of the Christian ChurchAt a still later date, it was the spirit of the true crusader that animated Christopher Columbus when he undertook his perilous voyage to the then unknown America, and Vasco de Gama when he set out in quest of IndiaThe property it held in France was confiscated in 1790, and when, in 1798, the Directory undertook an expedition to Egypt, Bonaparte, in passing, seized the Isle of Malta, whose knights had themselves under the protection of the Czar, Paul Ia commercial war between the Mediterranean maritime republics of Genoa (aided by Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre; John of Arsuf; and the Knights Hospitaller) and Venice (aided by the Count of Jaffa and the Knights Templar)The journey to the Eastern Mediterranean was inevitably long and eventfulLarge groups of young adults and children spontaneously gathered, believing their innocence would enable success where their elders had failed

The population of Europe (excluding Russia) more than doubled, growing from about 30 million people in A.DMoreover, between 1400 and 1402, John Palologus made another voyage to the West in quest of reinforcementsAfter various internal struggles over control of Antioch, the Crusaders began their march toward Jerusalem, then occupied by Egyptian Fatimids (who as Shiite Muslims were enemies of the Sunni Seljuks)But the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: they reopened the Mediterranean to commerce and travel (enabling Genoa and Venice to flourish); they consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under papal leadership; and they constituted a wellspring for accounts of heroism, chivalry, and piety that galvanised medieval romance, philosophy, and literatureReceiving news of the death of the Great Khan Mongke and a summoned to a gathering of Mongol khans to select his successor, the Mongol Ilkhanate leader Hulagu Khan withdrew from Syria with the majority of his army, leaving his designated commander the Armenian Christian Kitburqa Noyan to continue the invasion of Palestine with an army of about 20,000 menAnother area to receive increasing attention is the reaction of the Muslim world 5d8a9798ff

Abigail Archer is the author of Henry VIII and The New York Times bestseller Elizabeth I.The latest Tweets from Abby Archer (@abigailarcher53)Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tabletsWorksThere are 53 professionals named Abigail Archer, who use LinkedIn to exchange information, ideas ...View Abigail Archer’s professional profile on LinkedInThe lyrics can frequently be found here (check the full description and comments) or by ...We found Abigail Archer's personal information and public records on people-search websites
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